The creator of an original work is the prime owner of intellectual property. Copyright confers exclusive legal rights to control that work on the owner of intellectual property. A copyright owner has the right to copy, adapt or distribute the work by any means and to authorize others to do so by the transfer (assignment) or licensing of copyright. Without permission of the copyright owner, a work cannot be copied, adapted or distributed. Fair Dealing (Fair Use) for the purpose of non-commercial research, private study, criticism or review, instruction or examination does not infringe copyright. An author's moral rights are:
•to be identified as the author
•to object to derogatory treatment of their work and
•not to have work falsely attributed to them

We ask for transfer of ownership of copyright from authors. This enables us to distribute our authors' published research via a number of means to a wide range of readers, to take advantage of new technologies as they arise to distribute and store authors' work, and to protect our authors from copyright and moral rights violation. We only work with third party distribution partners with assured copyright policies, and monitor usage to ensure that it is in accordance with our principles. We do not restrict authors' rights to re-use their own work. This is an important difference. Authors don't have to ask our permission, and if they do, the answer is always yes.

North American Business Press authors who assign their copyright to us retain unlimited free reproduction rights for their own work. Authors do not give up their rights to use, republish or reproduce their work for course notes, in another journal or as a book chapter, or electronically including their own institutional website, subject to acknowledging first publication details. Authors who publish with North American Business Press are not required to seek our permission with regard to their own work. We aim to bring our authors' work to the widest audience, under the protection of our copyright policy.

North American Business Press takes its responsibilities to both its existing and potential authors very seriously. Every effort is made to provide the service that most fully meets your publishing requirements for:
•Quality journals
•Peer review, where stated
•Editorial excellence
•Due respect and credit for your work
•Global readership for your work.

North American Business Press believes that as an author you have the right to expect your publisher to deliver:
•An efficient and courteous publishing service at all times
•Prompt acknowledgement of correspondence and manuscripts received
•A high professional standard of accuracy and clarity of presentation
•A complimentary journal issue in which your article appeared plus article reprints
•A timely service for permission and reprint requests

Assigning copyright of your work to North American Business Press allows us to act on your behalf to:
•promote your rights
•facilitate dissemination of your work by granting permissions for educational use or republication
•target other North American Business Press journals whose readership may benefit from accessing your work
•endeavor to protect your work from any infringement of your rights which are brought to our attention.

This does not restrict your right or academic freedom to contribute to the wider distribution and readership of your work. This includes the right to:
1.Distribute photocopies of your own version of your article to students and colleagues for teaching/educational purposes within your university or externally. Please note, this does not refer to the North American Business Press branded, published version.
2.Reproduce your own version of your article, including peer review/editorial changes, in another journal, as content in a book of which you are the author, in a thesis, dissertation or in any other record of study, in print or electronic format as required by your university or for your own career development.
3.Deposit an electronic copy of your own final version of your article, pre- or post-print, on your own or institutional website. The electronic copy cannot be deposited at the stage of acceptance by the Editor.

All authors should be aware of the importance of presenting content that is based on their own research and expressed in their own words. Plagiarism is considered to be bad practice and unethical. As part of the North American Business Press Copyright Policy, we have prepared these guidelines to assist authors in understanding acceptable and unacceptable practice. Our approach is specifically aimed at promoting and protecting authors' work.

Verbatim copying of more than 10 per cent (or a significant passage or section of text) of another person's work without acknowledgement, references or the use of quotation marks. Improper paraphrasing of another person's work is where more than one sentence within a paragraph or section of text has been changed or sentences have been rearranged without appropriate attribution. Significant improper paraphrasing (more than

Re-use of elements of another person's work, for example a figure, table or paragraph without acknowledgement, references or the use of quotation marks. It is incumbent on the author to obtain the necessary permission to reuse elements of another person's work from the copyright holder.

North American Business Press requires that all authors affirm that their submitted work has not been published before. If elements of a work have been previously published in another publication, including a North American Business Press publication, the author is required to acknowledge the earlier work and indicate how the subsequent work differs and builds upon the research and conclusions contained in the previous work. Verbatim copying of an author's own work and paraphrasing is not acceptable and we recommend that research should only be reused to support new conclusions. We recommend that authors cite all previous stages of publication and presentation of their ideas that have culminated in the final work, including conference papers, workshop presentations and listserv communications. This will ensure that a complete record of all communication relating to the work is documented.

Original work is published in North American Business Press journals with a small number of exceptions only. These exceptions include conference papers, archival papers that are republished in an anniversary or commemorative issue, papers that are of particular merit and that have received only limited circulation (for example through a company newsletter). These papers are republished at the discretion of the Editor. The original work is fully and correctly attributed and permission from the appropriate copyright holder obtained. Attributions will be added to archive content that has been found to have been republished in an North American Business Press journal in the past.

Any individuals or persons wishing to use content from a North American Business Press journal, who do not meet the author specifications provided above must contact North American Business Press for explicit reproduction approval. You may contact the appropriate editor of the journal, or:

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